Services provided


Ovulation Timing

Bitches will only accept a male for breeding during the Estrous cycle.  The word Estrous by definition refers to this behaviour in the dog. We can monitor the estrous cycle to determine the ideal day of breeding via its outwards signs, e.g. vaginal discharge and swelling of the vulva, flagging behaviour of the bitch and the stud dogs willingness to breed.

It is when these natural occurrences don’t correspond to what is happening physiologically or when we use compromised semen i.e. frozen or fresh chilled  or poor quality live semen that we must rely on vaginal cytology, vaginoscopy, and progesterone levels.

During the early stage of the estrous cycle, (pro-estrous), estrogen levels rise.  The outward effect of estrogen is seen as firm swelling of the vulva and a bloody vaginal discharge.  Vaginoscopy will show a smooth ballooning of the vaginal lining.  Vaginal cytology will show rounded epithelial cells with relatively large nuclei , white blood cells (wbc's) and red blood cells (rbc) and bacteria.

VetCor Canine Reproduction Services

19337 - 48 Avenue, Surrey, BC  Canada  V3Z-1B1  Tel: (604)372-0334 Fax: (604)372-3779 

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Female Dog’s Hormonal Cycle

Vaginoscopy:  Estrogenic Phase

Vaginoscopy:  Progesterone Phase

Services Provided:

  1. Fresh Chilled And Frozen Semen

  2. Ovulation Timing

  3. Semen Evaluation

  4. TCI

Frozen Semen Information:

  1. What To Expect

Infertility Information Pages:

  1. Bitch

  2. Stud Dog

THE GOAL produce a litter.  This can only be accomplished if healthy sperm in adequate numbers are in the right place at the right time and that there is an adequate number of healthy eggs being produced which can implant into a healthy uterus.

As the estrogen level peaks it stimulates the release of Lutenizing Hormone which corresponds to a rise in the level of progesterone.  We now see a sudden decline in estrogen levels resulting outwardly in the softening of the swollen vulva and a more watery bloody discharge. Vaginal cytology, although still exhibiting wbc’s, rbc’s and bacteria will show a change in the epithelial cells which are now larger and with sharp edges and very small or no nuclei.

Vaginoscopy shows the start of flattening of the previously balloon like vaginal folds and of crenulation (wrinkling).  As the cycle progresses vaginoscopy shows progressively more crenulation seen as a significant wrinkling of the vaginal mucosa and squaring.